Respiratory diseases

In vivo models of respiratory inflammation

Asthma (mice)

  • Ovalbumin
  • HDM
  • HDM/CFA severe neutrophilic asthma

COPD (mice and rats)

  • Tobacco smoke induced acute and sub-acute pulmonary inflammation
  • LPS induced pulmonary neutrophilia

Viral exacerbations of asthma and COPD (mice)

  • Rhinovirus (RV-1B)
  • Influenza (Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1))

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV/A2)



  1. total and differential cell count in BALF
  2. lung function (resistance and compliance)
  3. histopathology
  4. inflammatory mediators in BALF
  5. immunohistochemistry


Gastrointestinal disorders

In vivo models of GI disorders

  • Functional models (mice and rats)
    • Gastric emptying
    • Intestinal secretion
    • GI transit
    • Closed intestinal loops
    • Intestinal growth


  • Models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
    • DSS (mice, rats)
    • TNBS (rats)
    • Oxazolone (rats)
    • CD4+CD25-CD62L+ T cell transfer chronic colitis in SCID mice


  • Read outs:
    1. Colon length (streching)
    2. histopathology
    3. disease activity score (DAI)
    4. inflammatory mediators in colon tissue


Rheumatoid arthritis

In vivo models of RA

  • Collagen type-II (CIA) (mice, rats)

Read outs:

  1. Clinical score
  2. Paw swelling
  3. Haematology
  4. Histopathology
  5. Immunohistochemistry
  6. Serum biomarkers
  7. inflammatory mediators


  • Screening model: LPS induced bone erosion (mice)

Read outs:Serum markers of bone erosion


Skin inflammation


In vivo models of skin inflammation

  • Imiquimod induced psoriasis (mice)
  • Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH)
    • Oxazolone (acute/chronic) (mice)
    • KLH (mice and rats)
  • Wound healing (mice and rats)